This is How International Maritime Moves
"The ISPS Code - International Ship & Port Facility Security Code and SOLAS Amendments 2002"
Author: James Dolan
Published: November 2003
After 9/11 nations turned to the international shipping community to determine whether terrorist activities could also be performed with ships. It is almost miraculous to consider that using ships as terrorist devices had not occurred to a significant extent prior to 9/11 since some ship types can be used for extremely destructive purposes.
IMO jumped into action and by 2003 had developed a complete security code named ISPS (pronounced Ispus, and which stands for the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code).
In this paper Jim Dolan summarizes the process and the impact of the code on ship owners and operators.
To download the full paper click this link: The ISPS Code - International Ship & Port Facility Security Code and SOLAS Amendments 2002